Challenging IB Chemistry
Internal Assessment Ideas
(For New Chemistry Syllabus)
1) Using biomass as a purification device
The procedure for a typical biosorption experiment can vary depending on the specific research objectives and the material being studied. Here's a basic procedure:
1. Preparation of Biomass: Obtain the desired biomass material, such as bacteria, fungi, algae, or activated carbon. Clean and prepare the biomass by washing it with distilled water to remove any impurities or contaminants. Dry the biomass if necessary.
2. Biosorbent Activation (if applicable): In some cases, the biosorbent material may need to be activated before use. This can involve treatments such as chemical activation, thermal activation, or physical activation to enhance its surface area and porosity. Follow the specific activation method recommended for your biosorbent material.
3. Preparation of Biosorbate Solution: Prepare a solution containing the target pollutant or metal ions that you want to remove or analyze. This can involve dissolving a specific concentration of the pollutant in distilled water or a suitable solvent. Adjust the pH of the solution if necessary to mimic the desired experimental conditions.
4. Biosorption Experiment Setup: In a series of experimental containers (e.g., beakers or test tubes), add a known quantity of the biosorbent material to each container. Ensure that the biosorbent is in contact with the biosorbate solution.
5. Incubation and Contact Time: Place the containers in a controlled environment, such as an incubator or shaker, and allow them to incubate for a specific period of time. This allows sufficient contact between the biosorbent and the biosorbate solution for the sorption process to occur. The contact time can vary depending on the experiment and the desired equilibrium conditions.
6. Sampling: At predetermined time intervals, take samples from each container to measure the remaining concentration of the pollutant in the solution. The sampling frequency will depend on the kinetics of the biosorption process being studied.
7. Analysis: Analyze the collected samples using appropriate analytical techniques. This can include methods like spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy, or other suitable methods to measure the concentration of the pollutant in the solution. You may also measure other parameters such as pH, temperature, and biomass characteristics.
8. Calculation of Biosorption Parameters: Calculate various biosorption parameters, such as the percentage removal of the pollutant, biosorption capacity, equilibrium constants, and kinetics parameters. These calculations will provide insights into the efficiency and effectiveness of the biosorbent material.
9. Data Interpretation and Analysis: Analyze the data obtained from the experiment, draw conclusions, and interpret the results. Compare the performance of different biosorbents, experimental conditions, or variables if applicable.
10. Report and Discussion: Compile the results and findings into a comprehensive report. Discuss the implications of the results, potential applications, limitations, and recommendations for further studies.
2) Dye - Degradation - saving the environment
Methyl orange is a commonly used dye that can be degraded through various methods. Here are a few possible approaches you can consider for degrading methyl orange:
1. Photodegradation: Methyl orange is sensitive to light, particularly ultraviolet (UV) light. You can set up an experiment by exposing a solution of methyl orange to UV light for a specific duration. The light energy will promote the degradation of the dye molecules. You can monitor the degradation process by periodically measuring the absorbance or color intensity of the solution using a spectrophotometer.
2. Chemical degradation: Methyl orange can undergo chemical degradation reactions under certain conditions. One common method involves the use of reducing agents such as sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) or sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). You can prepare a solution of methyl orange and add a controlled amount of the reducing agent. The reaction mixture can be heated or allowed to react at room temperature. Monitor the progress of degradation using color changes or analytical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy.
3. Biological degradation: Some microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, have the ability to degrade organic dyes like methyl orange. You can set up a biodegradation experiment by inoculating a culture of dye-degrading microorganisms into a solution of methyl orange. Provide suitable nutrients and conditions for the microorganisms to grow and degrade the dye. Monitor the degradation process over time by measuring the absorbance or using other analytical techniques.
4. Incubation and Contact Time: Place the containers in a controlled environment, such as an incubator or shaker, and allow them to incubate for a specific period of time. This allows sufficient contact between the biosorbent and the biosorbate solution for the sorption process to occur. The contact time can vary depending on the experiment and the desired equilibrium conditions.
5. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): AOPs involve the use of powerful oxidizing agents or reactive species to degrade organic compounds. One commonly used AOP is the Fenton process, which utilizes a combination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron salts (Fe2+/Fe3+). You can prepare a solution of methyl orange and add the Fenton reagents in controlled amounts. The reaction can be carried out under specific pH and temperature conditions. Monitor the degradation progress using analytical techniques.
Remember to carefully handle and dispose of the chemicals used in these experiments according to safety protocols and local regulations. It's also important to consult relevant literature or seek guidance from experts in the field for detailed experimental procedures and safety considerations.